AERO 401-500 (Spring 2017)

Aerospace Engineering AERO 401-500
Aerospace Vehicle Design
Credit 3: (2-3), Required Capstone Design Course
Spring 2017

Instructor 

Mr. Wayne A. Lutz
Office: 743A H.R. Bright Building
Office hours: M/T/W/TR 10 a.m.-4 p.m. when not in class, or by email or appointment
Contact information: 979.847.8852 | wlutz@tamu.edu

Teaching Assistant: N/A

Class Location/Times

  • M/W HRBB 131 - 4:10-5:25 p.m.
  • T/TR HRBB 131 - 11:10 a.m.-12:25 p.m.

Textbook 

Roskam, Jan, Airplane Design: Part I-VIII, Design, Analysis, and Research Corporation, Lawrence, KS 1989.

Prerequisites (Grade of C or better)

  • AERO 302
  • AERO 303
  • AERO 306
  • AERO 321
  • AERO 351

Course Description

Aerodynamic design, specification, arrangement, performance analysis, weight and balance, stability.  This course is based on the knowledge and skills acquired in earlier course work and is intended to familiarize aeronautical engineering students with a systems engineering approach to the methodology and decision making process involved in designing airplanes.  AERO 401 will provide a major design experience by preparing the students to achieve an ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety, manufacturability, and sustainability, etc.  This course will incorporate appropriate engineering standards and particularly highlight the impact of civil and military airworthiness regulations on the response to a given mission specification.  The student will receive specific airplane mission objectives and after consulting with a customer (course instructor), respond to a detailed request for proposal (RFP) and design an airplane which satisfies as far as possible the given mission specifications.  A significant portion of the design work will be done by hand, but specialized airplane software tools will also be used for certain aspects of the design process.  Students will document the progress of the design by presenting a series of professional quality, regularly scheduled Oral Reports and one technical description document (TDD).  The required contents for these Oral Reports, the TDD, and their due dates are detailed below. 

Learning Outcomes

At the end of this course, students will be able to:

  1. Apply the Systems Engineering approach to specifying, defining, tracking, and creating complex engineering systems.
  2. Analyze and interpret customer requirements for a flight vehicle, size a flight vehicle to satisfy performance constraints, and determine suitable configurations for a specificed mission.
  3. Collaborate as a member of a team, integrate a systems engineering approach to conduct and document a detailed and complete preliminary design of a flight vehicle.
  4. Specify the system relationships and interactions between aerodynamics, structures and materials, dynamics and control, propulsion, performance, and internal systems on the design of a flight vehicle. 
  5. Evaluate and determine the role of civil and military regulations and the importance of considering safety, reliability, systems engineering, and maintenance considerations in flight vehicle design.
  6. Communicate design results in briefings, and presentations.

Method of Evaluation

Each student will be graded individually. The grade is based solely upon five mandatory in-class Oral Report presentations, a Preliminary Design Review, and a Capstone Design Review presentation. A description of specific oral report requirements is provided on the student server in a folder titled, "Course Guidance."

Homework Policy and Major Exams The course design project and one written report are assigned on the first day of class. There are no additional homework assignments or written exams in this course.

Grade Breakdown

  • In-class Oral Reports 60%
  • CDR Oral Presentation 40%  CDR presentation date: 3 May 17

Grading Scale

  • 90-100     A
  • 80-89       B
  • 70-79       C
  • 60-69       D
  • below 60   F

Oral Report Due Dates The instructor reserves the right to change due dates of any reports.

  • Oral Report 1 - 31 Jan-2 Feb
  • Oral Report 2 - 14-16 Feb
  • Oral Report 3 (PDR) - 28 Feb-2 Mar
  • Oral Report 4 - 28-30 Mar
  • Oral Report 5 - 18-20 Apr

Attendance Policy

I expect you to attend every class and respect each member in our classroom.  I conduct the class as if we all are professionals in training sessions or meetings at your company.  In this professional environment this semester, I want you to realize that you will gain your professional reputation based upon your work performance, good decisions, teamwork, and yes, even attendance.  In the “real-world”, reliable attendance often is an unmentioned norm that is expected from all of us.  Therefore, I will consider “attendance” as part of your grade on each oral report.  I routinely take attendance and record absences and will reflect those data in each report period.  For example, if a student decides not to attend a scheduled class during the lecture periods as the rest of his/her company members prepare for Oral Report 1 (etc.), that unexcused absence is logged.  That individual student’s Oral Report 1 grade will be discounted by 5 points for each absence in that period. (i.e. With one unexcused absence recorded, an “A+” grade which is usually assigned 100% is reduced to 95% which is then recorded as an “A”).  I understand schedules are flexible at times; if you have a conflict with a specific class date, please notify the instructor prior to any planned absence – we’ll work it out, just like in the real world – and the absence may be excused, as determined by the instructor.

Course Topics

Week Topic
1 Introduction, Systems Engineering Approach to design, Program, Schedule and Risk Management
2 Mission Profile estimation, Sensitivity Studies, Introduction to Configuration, Wing, Engine, and RFP
3 Oral Reports #1 - Initial Design Briefing on Mission Specifications
4 Class I Cockpit and Fuselage Design, Overall Configuration, Weight & Balance, Drag, Guest Lecture
5 Oral Reports #2 - Brief on Cockpit, Fuselage, Engine, Wing, High Lift Devices, Surfaces, Landing Gear
6 Systems Engineering on airplane design. Also, Stability and Control, and Air Vehicle Systems
7 Technical Documentation of Design, Structures, Flying Qualities, Guest Lecture (Structures 1)
8 Oral Report #3 - Preliminary Design Review, Faculty Verification of Sizing, Wt&Bal, S&C, Perf, Drag
9 Flying Qualities (Cont.) Flight Safety, Cost Estimating, Manufacturing, Guest Lecture (Structures 2)
10 Oral Reports #4 - Preliminary Costs Assessment. First complete Oral Report on all design concepts
11 Systems Engineering, Life Cycle, Safety, Insights on Ethics of the professional engineer
12 Oral Reports #5 - Total Preliminary Design Presentation, Technology Projects are Due!
13 Safety, Guest Lecture (Manufacturing)
14 Course Administration for CDR, Student Companies Refine Presentations (consult with professor)
15 Airplane Design Lessons Learned, Capstone Design Review

 

Aggie Code of Honor

An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do.  Any form of cheating, plagiarism, and/or academic dishonesty may result in an “F” grade and/or disciplinary action. http://aggiehonor.tamu.edu .  If you use the work of another person of persons in your reports or presentations, then reference the person so that due credit may be given.  If you are not sure about whether a particular action could be considered plagiarism or academic dishonesty on your part, then ask the instructor. 

Notice:

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, currently located in the Disability Services building at the Student Services at White Creek complex on west campus or call 979-845-1637. For additional information, visit http://disability.tamu.edu.

Personnel Responsibilities

The class will consist of a number of engineering design teams, each consisting of approximately four to eight student engineers, depending upon the final number enrolled.

  1. The students themselves will form their own engineering design companies on the first day of class.
  2. All students must stay a member of the same engineering design company for the duration of AERO 401 and 402. No switching of personnel is permitted.
  3. Each engineering design company member must have the responsibility of being the team manager for at least one of the oral reports or a specific project this semester. The team manager will be responsible for delegating work assignments and editing the oral report, and for ensuring that it is ready on time. The team managers themselves will always be responsible for presenting the INTRODUCTION and the CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS sections for the complete technical briefing and will be responsible for delegating briefing assignments, managing the company budget, and coordinating technical description document assignments (see details below).
  4. Each member of the engineering design team will be responsible for conducting the design and analysis work AND THE PRESENTATION OF his or her assigned sections of each oral report. Additionally, each student will write one technical description document (Flight Manual text and Operating Procedure) on an aircraft system of their choice and ensure it is submitted on schedule. TEAMING UP WITH ANOTHER TEAM MEMBER TO WORK (engineering analysis or write-up) ON A SINGLE SECTION IS NOT PERMITTED AT ANY TIME.
  5. Each member of the engineering design team will be responsible for technical presentation of data. All design conclusions based upon software code or computer design applications (i.e., AAA, SolidWorks, TRANS3DNS, et. al.) MUST be supported by a "sample analysis" or manual calculation, and this material should be presented in the appropriate oral report or technical document.
  6. The student is responsible for all lectures, announcements, and assignments given during class.

Contributions to Professional Component

  1. First course in a two-semester capstone design sequence. Course is based on the knowledge and skills acquired in earlier coursework.
  2. Incorporates engineering standards and realistic constraints and considers economic, environmental, sustainability, systems engineering, manufacturability, ethical, health and safety, social and political considerations in the design process.
  3. Part of the engineering topics portion of the curriculum.
  4. Prepare students for engineering practice.

Relationship to Program Outcomes

Objective Assessment Method ABET Outcomes
Analyze and interpret customer requirements and observe  a systems engineering approach to design a flight vehicle, size a flight vehicle to satisfy performance constraints, and determine suitable configurations for a specified mission  Technical Presentations, Capstone Design Review Presentation  3(a), 3(c), 3(e) and AIAA Program Criteria “design competence which includes integration of aeronautical or astronautical topics.”
Work successfully as a member of a team, observe a systems engineering approach to conduct and document a detailed and complete preliminary design of a flight vehicle. Team evaluation, Technical Presentations, Capstone Design Review presentation, Outside reviews. 3(a), 3(c-g), 3(k), and AIAA Program Criteria "design competence which includes integration of aeronautical or astronautical topics."
Understand the system relationships and interactions between aerodynamics, structures and materials, dynamics and control, propulsion, performance, and internal systems on the design of a flight vehicle. Technical Presentations, Technical Description Document, Capstone Design Review presentation, outside reviews. 3(a), 3(c-g), 3(k), and AIAA Program Criteria "design competence which includes integration of aeronautical or astronautical topics."
Recognize the role of civil and military regulations and the importance of considering safety, reliability, and maintenance considerations in flight vehicle design. Technical Presentations, Capstone Design Review presentation, outside reviews. 3(a), 3(c-g), 3(k), and AIAA Program Criteria "design competence which includes integration of aeronautical or astronautical topics."
Communicate design results in technical briefings and presentations. Technical Presentations, Technical Description Document, Capstone Design Review presentation 3(g)

Supplementary Text:

Abbott, Ira H., and Von Doenhoff, Albert E., Theory of Wing Sections, Dover Publications, New York, 1959.

Anderson, John D. Jr., Introduction to Flight, Edition 8, McGraw Hill Publishing, New York, NY, 2016.

Austin, Reg. Unmanned Aircraft Systems UAVS Design, Development and Deployment, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Blacksburg, VA, 2010.

“A Systems Engineering Approach to Aircraft Design”, Prof. Dimitri N. Mavris, Director, Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL), 2012

Brandt, Steven A., Introduction to Aeronautics - A Design Perspective, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Reston, VA, 2015.

Bruhn, E. F., Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle Structures, Tri-State Offset Company, Cincinnati, OH, 1965.

Jane's all the World's Aircraft, Jane's Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY.

Lan, Chuan-Tau, and Roskam, Jan, Airplane Aerodynamics and Performance, Design, Analysis, and Research Corporation, Lawrence, KS, 1997.

MIL-STD-499B, MILITARY STANDARD SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, Joint OSD/Services/Industry Working Group as agent for HQ AFMC/EN DRAFT- 6 May 94.

Nicolai, Leland M. and Carichner, Grant E., Fundamentals of Aircraft and Airship Design Volume I – Airplane Design, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Reston, VA, 2010.

Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, U.S. Department of Transportation, Flight Standards Service, rev. ed. (2008), prepared by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration

Raymer, Daniel P., Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach, Fourth Edition, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Reston, VA, 2006

Roskam, Jan, Airplane Flight Dynamics and Automatic Flight Control, Part I, Design, Analysis, and Research Corporation, Lawrence, KS, 1994.

“Systems Engineering – A fundamental Concept of Design”, Dr. Armund J. Chaput, Adjunct Professor, University of Texas, Austin, TX, 2012 (excerpt: ASE 361 Course Material)

Tennekes, Henk, The Simple Science of Flight, The MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, London, England, 1997.

Capstone Design Program Course website

/aerospace/academics/capstone/airplanes

AERO 401 Research website

Note to students: TAMU Library Staff are available to provide class library instruction - as well as individual and small group instruction. Please contact Jane Stephens, Associate Professor, Science & Engineering Librarian, University Libraries, 979.845.5382, Office: Evans 111E.

AERO 401 - Aerospace Vehicle Design (Spring 2017) research guide

http://tamu.libguides.come/aero401

Texas A&M University research guide for aerospace engineering

http://tamu.libguides.com/aerospace

Design Software

"Advanced Airplane Analysis (AAA)", Design, Analysis, and Research Corporation, Lawrence, KS, 2009.

Report Standards and Regulations:

  1. Oral Reports must be presented on time, on the dates indicated. Once the date and speaking assignments are defined in class by the instructor, the oral report deadlines will not be extended for any reason, regardless of the availability of computers in the Lab, etc.
  2. Work must be professional and neat. All Oral Reports must meet minimum standards of professionalism. Unprofessional Oral Reports will be severely downgraded even if the technical contents are correct.
  3. All Oral Reports are to be done in PowerPoint or a similar application that can be projected. All names and page numbers must be uniform in appearance and in the same font type and same font size. Briefers' names and page numbers must be displayed on each slide. All engineering drawings must be drawn using a CAD software package, unless otherwise noted. Inclusion of AAA figure outputs in the Oral Reports is strongly encouraged. All information must be presented clearly to convey appropriate information within allotted time period (usually 30 minutes). It is in the student's best interest to follow similar formats in each subsequent briefing to facilitate including these data in later assignments.
  4. The AAA (or similar) software program must be used for all analysis and design work, and a CAD program must be used for all drawings, unless otherwise specified by the instructor. The only exception is for calculations and analysis that the AAA program does not perform.
  5. The Technical Description Document (TDD) will present a Flight Manual text and Operating Procedure, including Emergency Procedures, for an aircraft system which will be included in the team's aircraft design. Students will coordinate with their team manager to determine which key aircraft systems are defined. Each student must provide one TDD. If questions come up regarding which subject or type of TDD is required, then ask the instructor.

Course Content by Topic (45 total hours)

1. Systems Engineering (4 hours)  TEXT: Handout
2. Preliminary Sizing (4 hours)  TEXT: Part I, Chapter 2
Determination of takeoff weight, empty weight, and fuel weight from a given mission specification. Derivation and discussion of takeoff weight sensitivities to:
range
endurance
lift-to-drag ratio
specific fuel consumption
empty weight
3. Performance Constraints (6 hours)  TEXT: Part I, Chapter 3
Derivation and discussion of performance constraints for:
stall speed
takeoff and landing field length
carrier compatibility
climb to altitude
climb with all engines operating (AEI)
climb with one engine inoperative (OEI)
specific excess power
cruise speed
maximum speed
acceleration
maneuvering
Performance constraint plot and selection of takeoff wing loading and takeoff thrust-to-weight ratio. Preliminary method for determining drag polars.
4. Configuration Selection (7 hours)  TEXT: Part II, Chapters 4-13
Examples of airplane design as a non-unique, iterative process. Preliminary design decision making for:
cockpit and fuselage
wing
high lift devices
propulsion system
empennage
control surface sizing and disposition
landing gear
weight breakdown
weight and balance
stability and control
Construction of drag polars (revisited) and preparation of preliminary three view. 
5. Design of Major Aircraft Components (10 hours)  TEXT: Part III, Part IV
Detailed discussion of why's and how's of the design of:
cockpit
fuselage
wing
high lift devices
propulsion system
empennage
landing gear
Integration of payload, weapons, and civil and military regulations.
6. Component Weight Estimation (3 hours)  TEXT: Part IV
Component weight breakdown and detailed methods for estimating component weights. Construction and use of the V-n diagram. Civil and military regulations.
7. Flight Systems Design and Integration (10 hours)  TEXT: Part IV
Discussion of the operation, design, and integration of the following systems:
reversible and irreversible flight control systems
fuel systems
hydraulic systems
electrical and avionics systems
water and waste systems
anti-icing systems
de-icing systems
8. Design Iterations (2 hours)  TEXT: Part VII
Procedures for the analysis, design, and re-design of airplanes so that all mission, airworthiness, and environmental regulations are met.
9. Airplane Cost Analysis and Industry Practices (3 hours)  TEXT: Part VIII
Airplane cost analysis and prediction. Manufacturing cost, acquisition cost, operating cost for military and civil aircraft, life cycle cost. The 'design to cost' problem. Design guides for low cost. Factors in airplane program decision making. Interdisciplinary Product Teams (IPT), global alliances, reliability, maintainability, serviceability, and long-term life cycle aspects of design. Context of engineering practices (economics, history, law, environment, needs of society, and lessons learned).

 

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